Bactrim is a synthetic antibacterial product to treat ear infections, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, urinary tract infections.
Bactrim consists of two medications: sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. The first inhibits synthesis of dihydrofolic acid (the substance important for human and bacterial metabolism) while the last blocks next stage of its biochemical cycle: formation of tetrahydrofolic acid which occurs only in microorganisms. This medication is effective against streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, bacillus dysentery, typhoid fever, E. coli, Proteus, and ineffective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, spirochetes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bactrim is applied in treatment of pneumonia and other diseases of respiratory, gastrointestinal systems, urogenital systems caused by bacterial infections which develop after surgery and others.
Dosage and directions
Bactrim can be taken two or three times a day with or without a meal. Dosage depends on the type and severity of infection. Take with a glass of water. Patients with severe kidney failure require correction of Bactrim/Trimethoprim dosage.
Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, sold under the brand name Bactrim among others, is a fixed-dose combination antibiotic medication used to treat a variety of bacterial infections.
Avoid exposure to sunlight or getting tanned. Antibiotic medicines can cause diarrhea, inform your doctor if you have it can mask other infection. Warn your doctor if you suffer from asthma or have severe kidney or liver disorders.
Osteomyelitis is a purulent-necrotic disease that affects bones and bone marrow, as well as the soft tissue surrounding them. The causative agents of osteomyelitis are bacteria, fungi and mycobacteria.
Who can get osteomyelitis?
Osteomyelitis often affects young children and the elderly. However, the likelihood of its development exists in any age group, especially in people with weakened immunity and those with serious pathologies.
What is the danger of osteomyelitis?
The disease has a conditionally favorable outcome with timely treatment, but there is a risk that the disease will become chronic and will recur from time to time. Also, the chronic course of osteomyelitis can lead to serious complications (bone sclerosis, bone deformation).
Infection with microorganisms is accompanied by the migration of leukocytes to the site of the inflammatory process. White blood cells secrete lytic enzymes that break down bone. If pus spreads through the blood vessels, it leads to the development of a chronic infection. During this time, the body attempts to create new bone around the area of necrosis, which can be confirmed by histological examination.
When bone tissue becomes infected, bone marrow edema can develop, which presses on the outer wall of the bone. This causes the blood vessels to compress, causing blood flow to the bone to be reduced or stopped. Without normal blood flow, areas of bone tissue may die. The infectious process that occurs in this case is difficult to treat, since immune cells and antibiotics do not penetrate into these areas.
The infection can spread beyond the bone. This is dangerous due to the development of abscesses in muscle tissue. In some cases, abscesses come out through the skin.
In infants, the infection can spread to the joint and cause arthritis. Osteomyelitis in childhood can lead to the appearance of extensive abscesses. Due to the nature of the blood supply, the legs, hips, humeri, spine, upper jaw and mandibular joints are especially susceptible to osteomyelitis.
What bacteria most often cause osteomyelitis?
The cause of infection is often Staphylococcus aureus, which spreads through the bloodstream. Mycobacteria, which cause tuberculosis, and fungi can also spread in a similar way. People with weakened immune systems (HIV-infected, cancer patients) are especially susceptible to such infection. The development of osteoporosis can also be affected by the use of medications that suppress the immune system.
How do bacteria get into bones?
Bones have good natural protection against infection. However, in the following situations, infection may occur:
- bacteria are carried through the bloodstream from another part of the body;
- trauma (open fractures, knife and gunshot wounds);
- surgical treatment with subsequent complications;
- infectious diseases that develop close to the bones;
- immobility of a person for a long time (the appearance of bedsores).
How to recognize the symptoms of osteomyelitis?
In the acute course of the disease, in which the infection affects the bones of the arms and legs, the following symptoms are observed:
- increased body temperature;
- pain in the affected area;
- soreness, redness, and increased temperature of the skin over the infected bone;
- pain when moving;
- weight loss;
- fast fatiguability.
If osteomyelitis occurs as a result of infection of the soft tissue near the bone, or through direct infection, the area over the bone becomes swollen and painful. The patient may not have an increase in body temperature, even with the development of abscesses – clots of pus.
Damage to the spine by osteomyelitis develops gradually. Subsequently, back pain and tenderness to the touch develop. The pain intensifies with movement and does not go away with rest, even with painkillers.
In the absence of timely treatment, osteomyelitis becomes chronic, which practically cannot be completely cured. Sometimes chronic osteomyelitis does not make itself felt for months or even years. Signs of chronic osteomyelitis are the following symptoms:
- bone pain;
- recurrent soft tissue infections near the affected bone;
- release of purulent contents through the skin (may be constant, or may occur from time to time).
What diagnostic methods are used to detect osteomyelitis?
Osteomyelitis can be detected during a routine medical examination. A patient with suspected osteomyelitis is prescribed the following diagnostic procedures:
- blood analysis;
- examination of bones using X-rays, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging;
- bone scanning (including using labeled leukocytes).
A blood test is performed to determine indicators such as:
- erythrocyte sedimentation rate;
- level of protein that occurs in response to inflammation.
X-ray examination is not indicative in the early stages of the disease. It helps if the disease is at least a month old. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are more accurate diagnostic methods and can also detect complications resulting from the disease.
Alternatively, a bone scan and white blood cell scan may be performed. They allow you to see changed areas of bones.
To determine the pathogen, doctors may take blood, pus samples, synovial fluid, or a bone biopsy.
What treatment is effective for osteomyelitis?
The most effective method of treating osteomyelitis is drug therapy, which is aimed at destroying bacteria or fungi. In extreme cases, surgical intervention and opening of abscesses with subsequent installation of drainage are necessary.
One of the effective drugs in the treatment of osteomyelitis is the combined antibacterial drug Bactrim based on co-trimoxazole. It inhibits the growth and reproduction of bacteria, which leads to rapid relief of the inflammatory process.
Where can you buy Bactrim?
Bactrim can be purchased at a pharmacy or ordered online. Before purchasing, you must consult a doctor.
Is there a cheap but effective alternative to Bactrim?
Original drugs are expensive, which is why people need to find a drug at a lower price. In our online pharmacy you can order a high-quality and cheap analogue – generic Bactrim. It works exactly the same as the original drug and can be purchased without a doctor’s prescription.